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Отлов причины HardFault
Раздел: Разное - ARM - milandr

На основе

Стек в момент HardFault содержит состояние регистров ядра ARM. Код ниже показывает, как считать эти регистры в переменные С. После этого можно посмотреть значения этих переменных в отладчике.

Сначала, небольшая ассемблерная функция

The stack frame of the fault handler contains the state of the ARM Cortex-M registers at the time that the fault occurred. The code below shows how to read the register values from the stack into C variables. Once this is done, the values of the variables can be inspected in a debugger just as an other variable.

First, a very short assembly function is defined to determine which stack was being used when the fault occurred. Once this is done, the fault handler assembly code passes a pointer to the stack into a C function called prvGetRegistersFromStack().

The fault handler is shown below using GCC syntax. Note that the function is declared as being naked, so it does not contain any compiler generated code (for example, there is no function entry prologue code).

/* The prototype shows it is a naked function - in effect this is just an

assembly function. */
static void HardFault_Handler( void ) __attribute__( ( naked ) );

/* The fault handler implementation calls a function called
prvGetRegistersFromStack(). */
static void HardFault_Handler(void)
    __asm volatile
        " tst lr, #4                                                \n"
        " ite eq                                                    \n"
        " mrseq r0, msp                                             \n"
        " mrsne r0, psp                                             \n"
        " ldr r1, [r0, #24]                                         \n"
        " ldr r2, handler2_address_const                            \n"
        " bx r2                                                     \n"
        " handler2_address_const: .word prvGetRegistersFromStack    \n"

The implementation of prvGetRegistersFromStack() is shown below. prvGetRegistersFromStack() copies the register values from the stack into the C variables, then sits in a loop. The variables are named to indicate the register value that they hold. Other registers will not have changed since the fault occurred, and can be viewed directly in the debugger's CPU register window.

void prvGetRegistersFromStack( uint32_t *pulFaultStackAddress )
/* These are volatile to try and prevent the compiler/linker optimising them
away as the variables never actually get used.  If the debugger won't show the
values of the variables, make them global my moving their declaration outside
of this function. */
volatile uint32_t r0;
volatile uint32_t r1;
volatile uint32_t r2;
volatile uint32_t r3;
volatile uint32_t r12;
volatile uint32_t lr; /* Link register. */
volatile uint32_t pc; /* Program counter. */
volatile uint32_t psr;/* Program status register. */

    r0 = pulFaultStackAddress[ 0 ];
    r1 = pulFaultStackAddress[ 1 ];
    r2 = pulFaultStackAddress[ 2 ];
    r3 = pulFaultStackAddress[ 3 ];

    r12 = pulFaultStackAddress[ 4 ];
    lr = pulFaultStackAddress[ 5 ];
    pc = pulFaultStackAddress[ 6 ];
    psr = pulFaultStackAddress[ 7 ];

    /* When the following line is hit, the variables contain the register values. */
    for( ;; );

Using the Register Values

The first register of interest is the program counter. In the code above, the variable pc contains the program counter value. pc holds the address of the instruction that was executing when the hard fault (or other fault) occurred.

To find the instruction at the address held in the pc variable, either...

  1. Open an assembly code window in the debugger, and manually enter the address to view the assembly instructions at that address, or
  2. Open the break point window in the debugger, and manually define an execution or access break point at that address. With the break point set, restart the application to see which line of code the instruction relates to.

Knowing the instruction that was being executed when the fault occurred allows you to know which other register values are also of interest. For example, if the instruction was using the value of R7 as an address, then the value of R7 needs to be know. Further, examining the assembly code, and the C code that generated the assembly code, will show what R7 actually holds (it might be the value of a variable, for example).

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