MyTetra Share
Делитесь знаниями!
О, смотри-ка какое хорошее место. Дайте два!
Qt: Как сделать скачивание файлов по HTTP в Qt5
20.03.2016
22:41
Текстовые метки: qt, qt5, скачивание, download, файл, HTTP
Раздел: Компьютер - Программирование - Язык C++ - Библиотека Qt - Работа с сетью

Как сделать скачивание файлов на HTTP в Qt5


Введение


В этой статье рассказывается о том, как сделать скачивание

In this tutorial, we will learn how to download a file using QNetworkRequest.

The QNetworkRequest class holds a request to be sent with QNetworkAccessManager.

QNetworkRequest is part of the Network Access API and is the class holding the information necessary to send a request over the network. It contains a URL and some ancillary information that can be used to modify the request.

This version is a continuation from Downloading files with QNetworkAccessManager by adding UI and QProcessDialog as shown in the pictures below.





We'll start with Qt Gui Application.

First, we need to add network module to our project file, HttpDownload.pro:

QT += network

DEFINES += QT_NO_SSL

Though we do not have the code for SSL, but I added it to the .pro just to demonstrate how we set Macro.


Initial Design



Here is an initial design of dialog for Http file download:




Also, we setup a few slots:

private slots:

void on_downloadButton_clicked();

void on_quitButton_clicked();

void on_urlEdit_returnPressed();

For the last two slots, it's obvious what to do:

void HttpDownload::on_quitButton_clicked()

{

this->close();

}


void HttpDownload::on_urlEdit_returnPressed()

{

on_downloadButton_clicked();

}

Note that the action from return pressed is deferred to on_downloadButton_clicked() slot. So, the key coding will be what to do when download button is clicked.



Download Button Pressed

When download button is pressed, we know the url. So, we'll do construct QNetworkRequest object with the url:

QNetworkRequest(url);

We need to somehow use "GET" method, and it's available via QNetworkAccessManager Class. The class has couple of methods we may need:

  • QNetworkReply * QNetworkAccessManager::get(const QNetworkRequest & request)
    This method posts a request to obtain the contents of the target request and returns a new QNetworkReply object opened for reading which emits the readyRead() signal whenever new data arrives.
  • void QNetworkReply::downloadProgress(qint64 bytesReceived, qint64 bytesTotal) - signal
    This signal is emitted to indicate the progress of the download part of this network request, if there's any. If there's no download associated with this request, this signal will be emitted once with 0 as the value of both bytesReceived and bytesTotal.
    The bytesReceived parameter indicates the number of bytes received, while bytesTotal indicates the total number of bytes expected to be downloaded. If the number of bytes to be downloaded is not known, bytesTotal will be -1. The download is finished when bytesReceived is equal to bytesTotal. At that time, bytesTotal will not be -1.
  • void QNetworkReply::finished() - signal
    This signal is emitted when the reply has finished processing. After this signal is emitted, there will be no more updates to the reply's data or metadata.
    Unless close() has been called, the reply will be still be opened for reading, so the data can be retrieved by calls to read() or readAll(). In particular, if no calls to read() were made as a result of readyRead(), a call to readAll() will retrieve the full contents in a QByteArray.
    This signal is emitted in tandem with QNetworkAccessManager::finished() where that signal's reply parameter is this object.

Before we do any coding for QNetworkReply, we may want to read this:

  • The QNetworkReply class contains the data and headers for a request sent with QNetworkAccessManager
  • The QNetworkReply contains a URL and headers (both in parsed and raw form), some information about the reply's state and the contents of the reply itself.
  • QNetworkReply is a sequential-access QIODevice, which means that once data is read from the object, it no longer kept by the device. It is therefore the application's responsibility to keep this data if it needs to. Whenever more data is received from the network and processed, the
  • readyRead()
  • signal is emitted.

  • The downloadProgress() signal is also emitted when data is received.

Here is the skeleton of the code:

void HttpDownload::on_downloadButton_clicked()

{

// get url

url = (ui->urlEdit->text());


// get() method posts a request

// to obtain the contents of the target request

// and returns a new QNetworkReply object

// opened for reading which emits

// the readyRead() signal whenever new data arrives.

reply = manager->get(QNetworkRequest(url));


// Whenever more data is received from the network,

// this readyRead() signal is emitted

connect(reply, SIGNAL(readyRead()),

this, SLOT(httpReadyRead()));

}



Download File Size

In this tutorial, I could not get the file size before the download, I mean, not every site I tried. The progressDialog is failing to display the progress in such a case.

Here are my tries:

  1. Using slot :
  2. void HttpDownload::updateDownloadProgress(qint64 bytesRead, qint64 totalBytes)

    for the signal

    connect(reply, SIGNAL(downloadProgress(qint64,qint64)),

    this, SLOT(updateDownloadProgress(qint64,qint64)));

    where the reply is an QNetworkReply object defined as:

    reply = manager->get(QNetworkRequest(url));

    The totalBytes is -1 and QT doc says:

    bytesTotal indicates the total number of bytes expected to be downloaded. If the number of bytes to be downloaded is not known, bytesTotal will be -1.

    So, it sets the max value for the progress bar -1 which is not right:

    progressDialog->setMaximum(totalBytes);

  3. Used QFileInfo() to get the file size:
  4. QFileInfo fileInfo(url.path());

    fileSize = fileInfo.size();

    But this returns 0, probably it evalues 0 from the QVariant::invalid.

  5. The last approach is to use

reply->header(QNetworkRequest::ContentLengthHeader).toULongLong();

It gives me 0, probably because of the same reason as in my try #2.

I'll fix this problem as soon as I figured out.

Or if you know the answer, please give me an advice "contactus@bogotobogo.com"

In this tutorial, I'm using #1 approach, though internally, Qt is probably, doing the same.



Source Code

Project zip file: HttpWindow.zip



main.cpp

#include "httpdownload.h"

#include <QApplication>


int main(int argc, char *argv[])

{

QApplication a(argc, argv);

HttpDownload w;

w.setWindowTitle("Http Download");

w.show();


return a.exec();

}

httpdownload.h

#ifndef HTTPDOWNLOAD_H

#define HTTPDOWNLOAD_H


#include <QDialog>

#include <QNetworkAccessManager>

#include <QNetworkRequest>

#include <QNetworkReply>

#include <QUrl>

#include <QProgressDialog>

#include <QFile>

#include <QFileInfo>

#include <QDir>

#include <QMessageBox>



namespace Ui {

class HttpDownload;

}


class HttpDownload : public QDialog

{

Q_OBJECT


public:

explicit HttpDownload(QWidget *parent = 0);

~HttpDownload();


public:

void startRequest(QUrl url);

private slots:

void on_downloadButton_clicked();


void on_quitButton_clicked();


void on_urlEdit_returnPressed();


// slot for readyRead() signal

void httpReadyRead();


// slot for finished() signal from reply

void httpDownloadFinished();


// slot for downloadProgress()

void updateDownloadProgress(qint64, qint64);


void enableDownloadButton();

void cancelDownload();


private:

Ui::HttpDownload *ui;

QUrl url;

QNetworkAccessManager *manager;

QNetworkReply *reply;

QProgressDialog *progressDialog;

QFile *file;

bool httpRequestAborted;

qint64 fileSize;


};


#endif // HTTPDOWNLOAD_H

httpdownload.cpp

#include "httpdownload.h"

#include "ui_httpdownload.h"


HttpDownload::HttpDownload(QWidget *parent) :

QDialog(parent),

ui(new Ui::HttpDownload)

{

ui->setupUi(this);

ui->urlEdit->setText("http://qt.com");

ui->statusLabel->setWordWrap(true);

ui->downloadButton->setDefault(true);

ui->quitButton->setAutoDefault(false);


progressDialog = new QProgressDialog(this);


connect(ui->urlEdit, SIGNAL(textChanged(QString)),

this, SLOT(enableDownloadButton()));

connect(progressDialog, SIGNAL(canceled()), this, SLOT(cancelDownload()));

}


HttpDownload::~HttpDownload()

{

delete ui;

}


void HttpDownload::on_downloadButton_clicked()

{

manager = new QNetworkAccessManager(this);


// get url

url = (ui->urlEdit->text());


QFileInfo fileInfo(url.path());

QString fileName = fileInfo.fileName();


if (fileName.isEmpty())

fileName = "index.html";


if (QFile::exists(fileName)) {

if (QMessageBox::question(this, tr("HTTP"),

tr("There already exists a file called %1 in "

"the current directory. Overwrite?").arg(fileName),

QMessageBox::Yes|QMessageBox::No, QMessageBox::No)

== QMessageBox::No)

return;

QFile::remove(fileName);

}


file = new QFile(fileName);

if (!file->open(QIODevice::WriteOnly)) {

QMessageBox::information(this, tr("HTTP"),

tr("Unable to save the file %1: %2.")

.arg(fileName).arg(file->errorString()));

delete file;

file = 0;

return;

}


// used for progressDialog

// This will be set true when canceled from progress dialog

httpRequestAborted = false;


progressDialog->setWindowTitle(tr("HTTP"));

progressDialog->setLabelText(tr("Downloading %1.").arg(fileName));


// download button disabled after requesting download

ui->downloadButton->setEnabled(false);


startRequest(url);

}


void HttpDownload::httpReadyRead()

{

// this slot gets called every time the QNetworkReply has new data.

// We read all of its new data and write it into the file.

// That way we use less RAM than when reading it at the finished()

// signal of the QNetworkReply

if (file)

file->write(reply->readAll());

}


void HttpDownload::updateDownloadProgress(qint64 bytesRead, qint64 totalBytes)

{

if (httpRequestAborted)

return;


progressDialog->setMaximum(totalBytes);

progressDialog->setValue(bytesRead);

}


void HttpDownload::on_quitButton_clicked()

{

this->close();

}


void HttpDownload::on_urlEdit_returnPressed()

{

on_downloadButton_clicked();

}


void HttpDownload::enableDownloadButton()

{

ui->downloadButton->setEnabled(!(ui->urlEdit->text()).isEmpty());

}


// During the download progress, it can be canceled

void HttpDownload::cancelDownload()

{

ui->statusLabel->setText(tr("Download canceled."));

httpRequestAborted = true;

reply->abort();

ui->downloadButton->setEnabled(true);

}


// When download finished or canceled, this will be called

void HttpDownload::httpDownloadFinished()

{

// when canceled

if (httpRequestAborted) {

if (file) {

file->close();

file->remove();

delete file;

file = 0;

}

reply->deleteLater();

progressDialog->hide();

return;

}


// download finished normally

progressDialog->hide();

file->flush();

file->close();


// get redirection url

QVariant redirectionTarget = reply->attribute(QNetworkRequest::RedirectionTargetAttribute);

if (reply->error()) {

file->remove();

QMessageBox::information(this, tr("HTTP"),

tr("Download failed: %1.")

.arg(reply->errorString()));

ui->downloadButton->setEnabled(true);

} else if (!redirectionTarget.isNull()) {

QUrl newUrl = url.resolved(redirectionTarget.toUrl());

if (QMessageBox::question(this, tr("HTTP"),

tr("Redirect to %1 ?").arg(newUrl.toString()),

QMessageBox::Yes | QMessageBox::No) == QMessageBox::Yes) {

url = newUrl;

reply->deleteLater();

file->open(QIODevice::WriteOnly);

file->resize(0);

startRequest(url);

return;

}

} else {

QString fileName = QFileInfo(QUrl(ui->urlEdit->text()).path()).fileName();

ui->statusLabel->setText(tr("Downloaded %1 to %2.").arg(fileName).arg(QDir::currentPath()));

ui->downloadButton->setEnabled(true);

}


reply->deleteLater();

reply = 0;

delete file;

file = 0;

manager = 0;

}


// This will be called when download button is clicked

void HttpDownload::startRequest(QUrl url)

{

// get() method posts a request

// to obtain the contents of the target request

// and returns a new QNetworkReply object

// opened for reading which emits

// the readyRead() signal whenever new data arrives.

reply = manager->get(QNetworkRequest(url));


// Whenever more data is received from the network,

// this readyRead() signal is emitted

connect(reply, SIGNAL(readyRead()),

this, SLOT(httpReadyRead()));


// Also, downloadProgress() signal is emitted when data is received

connect(reply, SIGNAL(downloadProgress(qint64,qint64)),

this, SLOT(updateDownloadProgress(qint64,qint64)));


// This signal is emitted when the reply has finished processing.

// After this signal is emitted,

// there will be no more updates to the reply's data or metadata.

connect(reply, SIGNAL(finished()),

this, SLOT(httpDownloadFinished()));

}



← Содержание ...
 
MyTetra Share v.0.35
Яндекс индекс цитирования